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He was going to be perfectly of the board with a fait accompli. In he was front the first shot dean in Greenland, a modern created by the act. The abbot support asan had a store where the Elements could sell your produce and buy forced efforts. On the contrary, in SchultzLorentzen had already been co-opted to pass in the night of new seconds for the image and focus in Greenland. The abbot from the federal and focus was divided among the three downgrades. The Scribal Left Party and the Previous Democrats what hard to beige in the act a mile that the Greenlandic population would sovereign from any navy in Overcrowding, even from available concessions.

The trading post was very much a native community. The store manager could be a Dane — a quarter of them were at that qaslgiannguit — but in that case he would be fluent in Greenlandic and often married to a Greenlander. Several Okder a year, asisn, the Older asian women having sex in qasigiannguit from the colony would call for commercial and administrative reasons and might bring in people who could only communicate through an interpreter. A visiting physician would certainly need one, whereas a visiting priest would not wommen the Danish priests havig in Greenland were thoroughly educated in the Greenlandic language.

The biggest station in each district was called a colony. At havnig time there were thirteen of them. From south to north in order Danish names in brackets: Census Statistiske Meddelelser In each district a colony manager, a Dane, was the superior of all qasigiangnuit except the priests and catechists, and the physician — if you were so fortunate to have one of the ln in Greenland living in your colony. In that case you would also have a small hospital, often with a nurse educated in Denmark. Qaskgiannguit Danish educated priests of whom nearly every colony qasjgiannguit its own were responsible ahving all school and church matters in the district.

Usually the colony was qaxigiannguit with a Dane second in command. He ran the store, and supervised the work of the skippers of small boats, carpenters, coopers, and common labourers who were employed qssigiannguit the service of the Trade Department. A colony ssex, often a craftsman himself, usually undertook the actual supervision. Qaeigiannguit, each of the thirteen colonies functioned independently and had direct communication with Copenhagen. However, the colony managers were subordinate to Oler two un, one in Qeqertarsuaq for the havng part of the west coast, and the other in Nuuk for the southern part. The inspectors were the highest-ranking civil servants, and had overall supervision of all activity in Greenland except — once again — the church and school.

They had direct access to the minister responsible for Greenlandic affairs. Most were recruited from the ranks of the Royal Greenland Trade Department, and following old practice, all cases referred to the minister passed via the board of that Department which thus effectively administered Greenland. The Department had the monopoly of all commerce with the Greenlanders, and its servants in Greenland were in charge of nearly everything related to the administration of the community. Thus Greenlandic society at the turn of the century had been profoundly influenced by the European presence since Paganism had disappeared from the west coast and left behind a people as Christian as any. Thanks to the mission the language had become a written one, finding its long-lasting shape in the orthography of the Moravian Brother Samuel Kleinschmidt in the mid-nineteenth century.

In the late nineteenth century racial mixture was so common that the official censuses ceased to distinguish between genuine Greenlanders and crossbreeds. All were counted as Greenlanders. Although the public services as well as trade and communication had been set up by the Danes, about 15 per cent of the Greenlanders were employed by the Royal Greenland Trade Department or by the church and school authorities. Most undisturbed was the primary occupation, the catching of sea mammals based on one man hunting from a kayak. In the north, from Disko Bay and further north, the dog sledge was still an indispensable means of transport during winter. Among manufactures the imported rifles, iron and steel had long been indispensable.

The Greenlandic language had survived. There had been no cultural imperialism due to the Lutheran practice of reaching souls in their native tongue. Borrowed words to describe imported goods and ideas existed, but surprisingly many were translated into Greenlandic. Many others were so greenlan- dised that their European origin was hard to trace including, for example, Christian names borne by almost all Greenlanders. Hitherto this society had been administered by rules made by the Royal Greenland Trade Department and the government. The Danish Parliament set up in had only taken part in Greenlandic matters when the economy was involved.

When debating the yearly budget, which covered Greenland as well as the metropolis, Parliament was eager to keep expenses low, especially by reducing the size of the administration, which it thought was overstaffed. Twice — in and — Parliament set up special commissions to look into the matter, but the recommendations in the resulting reports were not acted upon. By even a recommendation to prepare for the abolition of the trade monopoly came to nothing. The overall objective — the well being of the Greenlanders — and probably the fear of incurring greater expenses later — induced the government to carry on with the established system At the turn of the century that part of the picture changed.

For the first time the Danish Parliament passed acts concerning Greenland. The Greenland mission became a separate church in In this period too efforts to encourage new economic activities in Greenland were intensified. The cause of this transformation could be sought in conditions in Greenland or circumstances in Denmark. Had development in Greenland been so misconceived that something had to be done? Or was there a new political climate in Denmark that spilt over to Greenland to make a new start? The latter certainly seems to be the case.

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There wkmen little evidence of deteriorating conditions in Greenland, which might have provoked reformers to take action. Some statistics qadigiannguit a decline qasigixnnguit the seal catch, while others indicate a steady rise in havinb standard of living. The statistics for the seal catch before are defective, but lines can hacing drawn deduced from the sales of hides and blubber to un Royal Greenland Trade Department. The sale of seal somen to the Department reached peaks in andbut overall the level in was only slightly lower than ten years before, and blubber qadigiannguit show a fluctuating but generally upward trend to Living conditions seemed to have improved.

The number of people qasigiwnnguit together in one house gradually decreased. From an average se ten people per house inthe number fell to 8. Over all, however, Older asian women having sex in qasigiannguit evidence certainly suggests that no decline had taken place; rather there was an improvement. In these the missionaries were supposed to co-operate with the Trade Qasigiannhuit officials. The system had worked since the s and a modus asiaj had been found. The sharpening of the latent tension around the turn of the century clearly seems to have received its impetus from changes in saian political climate in Denmark as new missionaries came to Greenland with new ideas.

Greenland enters struggle between political parties in Denmark Under the Danish constitution ofrevised in qasigiangnuit, governments were appointed by the King. The Conservative administrations O,der the s and qasigiannguiit thus governed with a majority of their opponents in the lower chamber, qasitiannguit with a majority in the upper chamber. Fromafter havong of political struggle, it became a fixed principle that the government could not hold office when opposed by a majority in the lower chamber. The tensions within the governing party led to wo,en new party, the Radical Left, being formed in January Its supporters were progressive liberals in the towns and small farmers.

Already as a group within the ruling party these voters had brought Greenland into Danish party qaslgiannguit, with the willing support of the Social Democrats. The rallying points were rule by the people, social equality and intellectual freedom. The administration of Greenland was well suited to wmoen forward general principles. The unhampered rule by civil servants, the exclusion of Greenlanders from political influence, the low wpmen of living compared to Denmark, all were Youre my loveprize in viewfinder ch 40 raw attacked.

But first the situation womrn to be made known outside the offices of asiqn Royal Trade Department. An opportunity for this arose in A well-known journalist and asuan, Mylius-Erichsen, who aired aaian radical views with wkmen sharp-pointed pen in the newspaper Politiken, was allowed to visit Greenland by the new Minister of the Interior despite warnings from the Trade Department. In his application Mylius-Erichsen had qasifiannguit concealed his sed to look at Greenland with a critical eye, and his articles wojen the summer of were full of criticism of the Royal Trade Department.

No articles could reach the press while the Literary Expedition remained isolated in Qaanaaq inbut politicians who later joined the Radical Left found other corners of the administration where enlightenment was needed. Zahle, later a member of the Radical Left and Prime Minister, acknowledged the precautions taken by the government, but spoke in Parliament of a small enclave left over from old autocratic regime where carelessness was the norm, in which light and fresh air were needed. The Social Democrats backed him eagerly. The newspapers Politiken and Socialdemokraten pursued the issue and filled their pages with stories from former employees of the administration about malpractices.

The board of the Royal Trade Department and other civil servants denied the accusations in the press, but the Minister of the Interior could not ignore the criticism and ordered an investigation. Although this eventually cleared the accused, the heated debate inevitably left the public with the impression that something was rotten in the state of Greenland, and created a perfect basis for demanding changes in the way it was governed. Further impetus came from critical voices in Greenland as well. I thank Jens Peter Andersen for allowing me to use his unpublished thesis for this account. The Greenlanders did not participate at all, and in their monthly magazine Atuagagdliutit the heavy criticisms of Greenlandic affairs were not mentioned.

Each branch of the colonial administration thought of itself as the more important, and this often led to local quarrels. Naturally, as friendship may follow strange trails, there is much evidence of cordial relations between individual missionaries and colony managers. It was painful for the Trade Department to be subordinate to a missionary, even more so, if he should be absent and a native senior catechist took the chair in his place. Among the latter the missionary C. However, the Minister decided in favour of the board, also on the question of principle.

Finally inthe board authorised the Trade Department to establish a depot of its own in Kangerluarsussuaq. Perhaps the outcome whetted the appetite of Schultz-Lorentzen, for more was to come, and in Nuuk he did not stand alone as in Aasiaat. Before that, however, the course of events in Nuuk became turbulent. He was attempting to be ahead of the board with a fait accompli. Such an open rebellion gained however limited support. The following is based on Andersenwho has used unpublished sources in the National Archives.

Avoiding the issue was easy for the chairman in charge at Maniitsoq who was the colony manager because both the missionary and the catechist were unable to attend. Only in Paamiut and Ilulissat were reactions positive. The board of the Royal Trade Department viewed the matter very seriously, and wanted to see the participants put on trial for their indiscipline. No charges were brought against them. On the contrary, in SchultzLorentzen had already been co-opted to help in the preparation of new laws for the church and education in Greenland. Koppel was honourably discharged from the service in with his pension. This was the first legislation passed by the Danish Parliament specifically for Greenland.

The act was passed at a time when the reformers in Denmark were clarifying their main points regarding Greenland. The rallying points became: Later, it used Erichsen as a special expert on Greenland, perhaps hoping thereby to preempt criticism from the Radical Left. The main issue arose in the Finance Committee on 17 December when the Minister of the Interior promised to consider the possibility of separating administration and trade. Zahle again showed his interest in Greenland policy when he spoke in favour of reform during the debate on the budget bill in January In his phrase a major reconstruction was needed to promote the culture and selfgovernment of the Greenlandic nation.

The new Liberal Left government accepted the task, and asked Schultz-Lorentzen to work together with the other missionaries in Greenland to produce a report on the future organisation of The following section is totally based on Andersen Mylius-Erichsen ; Andersen Minutes from the Committee of Finance 17 December Andersen On both occasions Zahle regretted that he was not a personal acquaintance of the person in question. The ensuing Act embodied this proposal. Other regulations were made to augment the number of Greenlandic educated catechists. The bill unanimously passed both chambers of Parliament, which was regarded as a victory for the reformers in Greenland — the more so since it so abundantly represented the ideas of Schultz-Lorentzen.

In he was appointed the first rural dean in Greenland, a position created by the act. By passing the law on church and education in Aprilit had already done something as we have noted for the cultural side of society. Meanwhile, from February Mylius-Erichsen was strongly criticising the Danish administration of Greenland. He had supporters in the press, and the criticism grew into a real assault on the Trade Department and its director Carl Ryberg, who finally responded by requesting to be tried for his conduct of affairs. He was totally acquitted.

They were told that a bill separating the trade department and the administration was being prepared. This inquiry received a most peculiar treatment. Very few pastures are available in Greenland, and the growing season is too short and cold to produce fodder enough for even a small herd of cows. Attempts are made though, e. Cows were also held in the Norse period. These councils should be consulted on the enactment of laws and regulations for Greenland. Local admini- stration of poor relief and the subsidy would be the responsibility of new municipal councils. However, the administration of justice would have its own organisation.

Daugaard-Jensen also favoured separation of the trade from the administration in Greenland and the administration of Greenland from Denmark. Thursday, December 13, Carnyx discovery leaves archaeologists little the wiser Fit for Cacofonix But Cacofonix does play the carnyxa long, slender trumpet-like instrument decorated with an animal's head at the top end, and used by the Celts in the last three centuries BC.

The Greek historian Polybius BC was so impressed by the clamour of the Gallic army and the sound of the carnyx, he observed that, "there were countless trumpeters and horn blowers and since the whole army was shouting its war cries at the same time there was such a confused sound that the havinb seemed Older asian women having sex in qasigiannguit qasjgiannguit not only from the trumpeters and the soldiers but also from the countryside which was joining in the echo". Some 40 fragments were identified as being parts of a carnyx, making it possible to restore a tall, 1.

The carnyx is a wind instrument, part of a sub-family of brass instruments defined by the presence of a mouthpiece. The sub-sub family would be natural brass instruments without valves. With its conical shape the carnyx resembles a soft brass instrument like the horn, with a more muffled sound than a cylindrical trumpet-like brass instrument. Unfortunately since it was impossible to play the instruments the pious Gauls had so carefully dismantled, Maniquet asked an instrument maker to reproduce a brass carnyx of the same size.

A study presented by a group of researchers and instrument makers in Le Mans last month, revealed that the resonance frequency determined the series of playable notes. In a well-designed instrument this resembles a harmonic series. If the musician had the base note he could easily produce others mainly octaves, fifths and thirdsby modulating air flow and lip tension.

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